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Avocado Fact Sheet

  • Family: Laurelaceae
  • Genus: Persea
  • Species: Americana
  • Commercially important species:
    • Mexican
    • Guatemalan
    • West Indian
  • Related species: Americana
  • Description: Upright Bushy Tree
  • Origin: Mexico, Central and South America
  • History of cultivation: First U.S. plantings in Florida 1833 in CA 1856
  • Current production: California 95% and Florida 5%

Cultivation in California

  • History: Traditionally from Mexico, South and Central America.
  • Farmgate value: Dependent on seasonal supply
  • Cultivars: Hass, Fuerte, Zutaro, Bacon, Susan
  • Propagation: In containers; (CA) container grown tip grafts.
  • Irrigation: Low volume applicator
  • Training System: Pinch off terminal
  • Nutrition: N, Zn and Fe
  • Marketing: in the fall.

Production Problems

  • Environmental: protect from wind and cold
  • Insect/Pest: Aphids, armorlia moth and larvae, omnivorous looper, Diabotica beetles, deer, greenhouse trips, Persea mite, cadidids.
  • Disease: of seed Phytophthora cinnamoni, sunblotch virus, avocado root rot.
  • Yield: Alternate bearing
  • Rootstocks: Tip grafts of Duke 7 and Toro Canyon


  • Growing Avocados in the San Joaquin Valley. UC DANR Publications, Publication #904
  • The California Avocado Industry, World Avocado Congress II. Orange, CA. UCR, 1991.

Prepared by Colin Courser, 1995